|Rome, the Eternal City|
The roman eagles would stay in Britain almost three hundred and fifty years after the rebellion of Boudica. Were peaceful or turbulent times, with many ups and downs, depending on the situation of Rome. The excessive growth of the empire, had increased the problem of guarding the borders. Besides, the political intrigues at the metropoli marked their influence over the provinces... as some generals became very prominent (and powerful), were the object of imperial suspicions. The reality often demonstrated that this mistrust was not wrong.
|Romans versus Celts|
|Gnaeus Julius Agricola|
The Caledonians and Picts tribes searched for shelter in the northern mountains. They continued harassing the romans for years, consuming time and resources needed in other regions. At the same time it was producing a progressive fatigue on the troops. In times of emperor Trajan, by the year 100, the Roman Empire reached its largest extent... and the contingents in Britain suffered a severe reduction.
|Hadrian: between 117-138 AD|
|Map of Londinium, 2nd century AD|
|Ruins of Roman wall,|
at Stanwick Hill, Scotland.
The new border presented serious issues: it was very distant, in the middle of a hostile territory. The fragile wall permited the celtic warriors to pass through without great efforts. Moreover, the lands between the two walls were refuge of many rebels, this would cause more struggling and more fatigue for the romans... they knew how it was: they could defeat those people, but never finished them. At the same time, still persisted the political instability in Rome, and the endless war in many fronts at the same time. The loss of all those territories was only a matter of time.
|Hadrian's Wall. England.|
|Antoninus' Wall, near Fort Cumbernauld.|
|Trajan Column. Rome.|
| The Spear of Destiny.|
Hofburg Palace. Vienna, Austria.
The celtic rebellion manifested in a curious manner: Christianity took its roots in Britain. It seems a way to oppose to the pagan beliefs of Rome. Then maybe had their origin the stories of The Holy Grail and the Sacred Spear, brought there by Joseph of Arimathea, many years before. These beautiful stories are related to King Arthur's legend, appeared some centuries later. The mix of Christianity with Celtic cults, and some of the Druid misteries is always present there. Would be very interesting to search about the historical basis of all these.
|Diocletian. Istanbul Archeological Musem.|
Photo: G. Dall' Orto, 2006 (cropped).
|Constantine the Great. York, UK.|
By that time, the pressure at the borders was increasing constantly. The Germans had become a real menace for the empire. In Britain, those were times of continous military weakening. As a consequence, the rebels could move and attack everywhere, with great ease.
|Bath Cathedral. The Roman Church.|
Even the Celtic tradition was displaced by the Anglo-Saxon culture, leaving only vestiges. Britain was the only western Roman province where such a process happened. Now, is impossible to imagine how could the history had been if the Roman influence over these lands would have remained...
|Eagle relief on stone from Picts. Scotland.|
"Never will be attacked with impunity..."